PHP: So you'd like to migrate from MySQL to CouchDB? - Part II

Thursday, November 12. 2009
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This is part II of my introductory series to move from MySQL a relational database (management) system to CouchDB. I will be using MySQL as an example. Part I of this series is available here.

Recap

In part I, I introduced CouchDB by explaining its basics. I continued by showing a simple request to create a document using curl (on the shell) and expanded how the same request could be written in PHP (using ext/curl) — or in HTTP_Request2 or with phpillow.

Part II will focus on the most basic operations and help you build a small wrapper for CouchDB. The code will be available on Github.

Getting data into CouchDB

As I explained before — CouchDB is all HTTP.

But for starters, we'll take a shortcut here and briefly talk about CouchDB's nifty administration frontend called futon. Think of Futon as a really easy to use phpMyAdmin. And by default futon is included in your CouchDB installation.

Features

Futon will allow you to virtually do anything you need:

  • create a database
  • create a document
  • create a view
  • build the view
  • view ;-) (documents, views)
  • update all of the above
  • delete all of the above
  • replicate with other CouchDB servers

Assuming the installation completed successfully, and CouchDB runs on 127.0.0.1:5984, the URL to your very own Futon is http://127.0.0.1:5984/_utils/. And it doesn't hurt to create a bookmark while you are at it.

Why GUI?

Purists will always argue that using a GUI is slower than for example hacking your requests from the shell.

That may be correct once you are a level 99 CouchDB super hero, but since we all start at level 1, Futon is a great way to interact with CouchDB to learn the basics. And besides, even level 99 CouchDB super heroes sometimes like to just click and see, and not type in crazy hacker commands to get it done.

I'll encourage everyone to check it out.

Read, write, update and delete.

Sometimes also referred to as CRUD (create, read, update, delete) — read, write, update and delete are the basics most web applications do.

Since most of you have done a "write a blog in X"-tutorial before — and I personally am tired of writing blogs in different languages or with different backends — let's use another example.

Think about a small guestbook application, it does all of the above — a fancy guest will even do update. For the sake of simplicity, I'll skip on the frontend in this example and we'll work on the backend and essentially create a small wrapper class for CouchDB.

Operations

By now — "CouchDB is all HTTP" — should sound all familiar. So in turn, all these CRUD operations in CouchDB translate to the following HTTP request methods:

  • write/create - PUT or POST
  • read - GET
  • update - PUT or POST
  • delete - DELETE

On write

Whenever you supply an ID of a new document along with the document, you should use PUT.

When you don't care about the document ID, use POST instead, and CouchDB will generate a unique ID for you.

This unique ID will not look like an autoincremented integer, but we should not cling to this concept anyway. Without diving into too advanced context now, but the auto_increment feature in MySQL is a little flawed in general and in a distributed context especially. More on this (maybe) in a later part of this series — in the mean-time, check out Joshua Schachter's post.

On update

By default, CouchDB keeps a revision ID of each document. To many this is a pretty cool feature — out of the box, so to speak. But there are two very important and fundamental things to be aware of.

  1. CouchDB will keep previous revisions of a document around until you run compact on the database. Think of compact as a house keeping chore. It will wipe your database clean of previous revisions and even optimize the indices (in case you had a lot of data changing operations in the mean time). For CouchDB revisions are especially important in a distributed context (think replication — more on this later) and while it's cool to have them, they should not be used as a feature and be exposed to the user of your application.

  2. In case we decide a document, we always have to provide the previous (or current) revision of the document. This sounds strange, but the reasons are simple — in case another update gets in between all we have to do is provide the necessary interfaces and workflows in our application to alert the user and avoid a possible conflict.

CouchDB and the HTTP standard

CouchDB's API adheres to the above in 99.999999999% of the time. And it only breaks the pattern once. The exception to the rule is that when you bulk request multiple documents, which is strictly speaking a GET operation CouchDB will allow you to post in this case.

The reason for this is that the length of GET request is limited (by RFC) and if we exceeded this by requesting too many document IDs, we would hit a hard limit. To get around this, the operation is POST — but more on this later.

Requirements

For the following examples we assume a working CouchDB installation and a database called guestbook. No admins are set up — we can read and write without permission.

For simplicty, we imagine a form with the following fields:

  • author
  • entry

... and in addition to those two keys that may be populated by the user we add:

  • type (always: guestbook)
  • added (a date of some kind)

... the last two are not absolutely necessary, but will come handy in future iterations of this tutorial.

Also, on the tech side, we need a webserver with PHP and HTTP_Request2 (pear install HTTP_Request2-alpha) in your include_path. :-)


Continue reading "PHP: So you'd like to migrate from MySQL to CouchDB? - Part II"

PHP: So you'd like to migrate from MySQL to CouchDB? - Part I

Saturday, October 31. 2009
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Update (2009-10-13): I posted part II!

This is the first part of a series. I'll start off by introducing CouchDB — from a PHP side, then I'll demo a couple basic use cases and I later on, I'll dive into migrations from MySQL.

My idea is to introduce CouchDB to a world where database-driven development generally refers to MySQL. By no means, this is meant to be disrespectful to MySQL, or SQL-databases in general. However, I'm a firm believer in using the right tool for the job.

First things first!

First off, before using CouchDB and maybe eventually replacing MySQL with it, we need to ask ourself the "Why?"-question.

And in order to be capable of more than a well-educated guess we need to familiarize ourselves with the CouchDB basics.

Basics

  • Document-oriented and schema-less storage.
  • Erlang (for rock-solid-scaling-goodness).
  • RESTful HTTP-API (we'll get to that).
  • Everything is JSON - request data, storage, response!

Document-oriented

In a document-oriented as to opposed to a relational store, the data is not stored in table, where data is usually broken down into fields. In a document-oriented store each record is stored along side and can have its own characteristics — properties of any kind.

As an example, consider these two records:

Till Klampaeckel, Berlin
Till Klampaeckel, [email protected], Berlin, Germany

In a relational store, we would attempt to break down, or normalize, the data. Which means that we would probably create a table with the columns name, email, city and country.

Consider adding another record:

Till Klampaeckel, +49110, [email protected]

(Just fyi — this is not my real phone number!)

Looking for an intersection in the records, the name is the only thing this record has in common with the previous two. With a relational database, we would either have to add a column for phone number and chat, or we would start splitting off the data into multiple tables (e.g. a table called phone and one called chat) in order to get grip.

With a document-oriented database — such as CouchDB — this is not an issue.

We can store any data, constraints do not apply.

Erlang

Erlang was invented a while ago, by Ericsson, when it was still sans Sony. In a nutshell, Erlang's true strength is reliability and stability. It also manages to really utilize all the resources modern hardware has to offer since it's a master of parallelization.

CouchDB is written in Erlang, and also accepts view code written in Erlang. More on views later.

RESTful HTTP-API

For starters, a lot of HTTP-APIs claim to be RESTful, most of them are not. HTTP has so called request verbs (DELETE, GET, HEAD, POST, PUT among them) and a lot of APIs don't use them to the fullest extend, or rather not all.

Instead, most APIs are limited GET and maybe use a little POST. An example of such an API is the Flickr API.

Most of us are familiar with GET and POST already. For example, when you opened the web page to this blog entry, the browser made a GET-request. If you decide to post a comment later on — you guessed it, that's a POST-request.

Aside from its basic yet powerful nature, HTTP is interesting in particular because it is the least common multiple in many programming language. Whatever you use — C#, PHP, Python, Ruby — these languages know how to talk HTTP. And even better — most of them ship pretty comfortable wrappers.

JSON

JSON — it's godsend for those of us who never liked XML.

It's very lightweight, yet we able to represent lists and objects, integers, strings — most data types you would want to use. A clear disadvantage of JSON is that it lacks validation (think DTD), and of course comments — ha, ha!

Why, oh why?

So along with "Why?", we should consider the following:

  • Does it make sense?
  • Is CouchDB (really) the better fit for my application?
  • What is my #1 problem in MySQL, and how does CouchDB solve it?

And if we are still convinced to migrate all of our data, we'll need to decide on an access wrapper.

It's all HTTP, right?

By now, everyone has heard that CouchDB has a RESTful HTTP-API. But what does that imply?

It means, that we won't need to build a new extension in PHP to be able to use it. There's already either ext/socket or ext/curl — often both — in 99% of all PHP installs out there. Which means that PHP is more than ready to talk to CouchDB — right out of the box.

Since I mentioned JSON before — today ext/json is available in most PHP installs as well. If however we happen to be one of the few unfortunates who don't have and cannot get this extension, we should use Services_JSON instead.

Install it!

CouchDB installations are available in most Linux and Unix distributions. On MacOSX, get CouchDBXthe one-click CouchDB package, and there's a work in process for Windows as well. Especially interesting for those who run Ubuntu 9.10 (which has been released a few days ago), there's already a CouchDB install included.

Ubuntu/Debian:

apt-get install couchdb

FreeBSD:

cd /usr/ports/databases/couchdb && make install clean

Continue reading "PHP: So you'd like to migrate from MySQL to CouchDB? - Part I"

MySQL: Using indices correctly

Tuesday, May 5. 2009
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The objective was to select sessions from a table, that are older than two days.

Table setup

This is the definition:

CREATE TABLE `session` (
  `id` varchar(32) NOT NULL DEFAULT '',
  `data` text NOT NULL,
  `user` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `created` datetime NOT NULL DEFAULT '0000-00-00 00:00:00',
  `updated` datetime NOT NULL DEFAULT '0000-00-00 00:00:00',
  PRIMARY KEY (`id`),
  KEY `user_id` (`user`),
  KEY `rec_datemod` (`updated`)
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8;

Right and wrong

Wrong query:

SELECT * FROM session
WHERE DATE_ADD(`updated`, INTERVAL 2 DAY)< NOW()

Correct query:

SELECT * FROM session
WHERE `updated` < DATE_SUB(NOW(), INTERVAL 2 DAY)

You wonder why?

Executing the first query, MySQL will scan the entire table and calculate the date from each row. Then it will continue and compare the value to NOW() and return the row if it matches. This is somewhat (Not really!) OK until a certain amount of traffic on the table. In my case, I have 500,000 (five-hundred-thousand) active sessions (aka rows) in the table, which makes it slower and slower and slower.

Because of the full table scan, this will also effectively lock the table (even though it's INNODB) and block it from further updates.

The second query (obviously) works around that and uses the KEY on updated.

Conclusion

The first lesson is to always use EXPLAIN!

Further more, I know some of you will shiver but phpMyAdmin is actually a pretty useful tool for these circumstances. The website stalled, you log into phpMyAdmin and figure out what's running ("Processes" tab, when you're logged in as a privileged account). If you're a shell-ninja, just execute SHOW PROCESSLIST (in mysql) and push whatever runs the longest to EXPLAIN.

The slow query-log is also something you should read up on.